Multiplex Immunohistochemistry (mIHC) is an advanced technique used to visualize multiple proteins simultaneously in a single tissue section. This method leverages the specificity of antibodies, each tagged with distinct fluorophores or enzymes, to bind to different antigens. The result is a comprehensive, multicolored image that allows researchers to study the spatial relationships and co-expression patterns of various proteins within the complex tissue architecture. mIHC is particularly valuable in cancer research, immunology, and pathology, where understanding the interplay of different cell types and proteins within the tissue microenvironment is crucial.
Imaging Mass Cytometry combines mass spectrometry and cytometry to enable the highly multiplexed analysis of tissue samples. This technology uses antibodies tagged with heavy metal isotopes to label specific proteins within a tissue section. The tissue is then ablated layer by layer, with the resulting ion cloud analyzed by mass spectrometry. This approach allows for the simultaneous detection and quantification of dozens of proteins, providing a detailed view of cellular composition and function within tissues, making it invaluable in research areas like oncology, cell biology, and immunology.
Co-detection by indEXing (CODEX) is a powerful tool for highly multiplexed, spatially resolved imaging of cells within tissue samples. Using fluorescence-labeled antibodies, CODEX sequentially images multiple biomarkers on a single sample, allowing for the detailed visualization of cellular interactions and microenvironments. This technique is particularly useful in studying complex biological systems such as tumors or inflamed tissues, where understanding the spatial arrangement and interaction of various cell types is critical.